10.1.2 - Team Technicals
(a) Three minutes prior to the start of the game; or (b) during a time-out in the second quarter of play, the Team B coach requests the scorer to add a name to the team list or change a team member’s number in the scorebook. When is the penalty invoked for this administrative infraction?
RULING: The infraction occurs when the scorer is advised to add to or change the scorebook. The foul must be charged when it occurs and enforced when the ball next becomes live. Once the ball has become live, it is too late to penalize.
10.1.3 - Team Technicals
The home team: (a) has a television monitor in the press box or the dressing room and is relaying information to the player’s bench; or (b) uses a replay of the first half during the intermission for use by the coach in preparation for the second half.
RULING: Legal in both (a) and (b).
10.2.1 - Team Technicals
A1 is fouled by B1 during an unsuccessful try and is awarded two free throws. Team B requests and is granted a charged 60-second time-out. Team B disregards the 15-second warning signal and the signal ending the time-out and is still huddling with their coach at the end of the charged time-out.
RULING: The official shall administer the first free throw using the resumption-of-play procedure and a violation occurs if it is missed. If two B players are not in the required position when the official is ready to put the ball in play for the substitute throw, a delay of game technical foul will be assessed. If the first attempt is good, the same procedure is used for the second. (9-1-2, 10-2-5)
The ruling official has reported the foul and is ready to administer the free throw. Free thrower A1 is: (a) huddling with teammates by the team bench area; or (b) is in the semicircle, but teammates are huddling in the lane area.
RULING: A technical foul for delay by A1 in (a). In (b), Team A is warned for delay. In (b), if Team A had been warned previously for any delay-of-game situation, a team technical foul would be charged. (10-2-5, 10-4-5c)
The ruling official has reported the foul and proceeds to his/her proper position for the first of two free throws awarded to A1. B1 and B2 are: (a) huddling in the lane; or (b) two B players are not occupying the first two marked spaces next to the end line as required.
RULING: In (a), if the huddle delays the officials’ administration, Team B is warned. The warning is recorded by the scorer and reported to the head coach. If Team B had been previously warned for delay, a technical foul shall be charged. In (b), Team B will be directed to occupy the required spaces. If there is delay, a team technical foul shall be charged to Team B. (4-47)
Immediately following a goal by A1, A3 slaps the ball away so that Team B is unable to make a quick throw-in.
RULING: The official shall sound his/her whistle and go to the table to have the scorer record a team warning for delay. The warning shall then be reported to the head coach of Team A. Any subsequent delay by Team A shall result in a team technical foul charged to Team A. (4-47-3)
Team B is warned in the first half when B1 reaches through the inbounds side of the throw-in boundary plane. Early in the fourth quarter: (a) B1; or (b) B2 does the same thing.
RULING: The technical foul in both (a) and (b) is charged to Team B. A team will only receive one of the four delay-of-game warnings during a game. Thereafter, any delay-of-game situation by a member of that same team results in a technical foul. (9-2-10)
10.2.2 - Six in Game
With Team A leading 51 to 50, a held ball is called. A6 properly reports and enters the game. Time is then called by Team A. The clock shows two seconds remaining in the game. After play is resumed by a throw-in, the officials: (a) recognize that A has six players competing, but cannot get the clock stopped; or (b) do not notice Team A has six players on the court. Following the throw-in, time expires. Team B now reports to the officials that Team A had six players on the court.
RULING: In (a), since one of the officials had knowledge that Team A had six players participating simultaneously and this was detected prior to time expiring, a technical foul is assessed against Team A. In (b), since it was not recognized by either official, but was called to their attention after time had expired, it is too late to assess any penalty.
10.2.3 - Excess Time-out
A1 requests and Team A is granted a time-out late in the fourth quarter. Team A had already used its three 60-second time-outs and its two 30-second time-outs.
RULING: Team A is granted the time-out and is charged with a technical foul. No indirect foul is charged to the head coach.
10.2.4 - A Specific Unsporting Act
Immediately following a goal or free throw by Team A, A1 inbounds the ball to A2 and A2 subsequently throws the ball through A’s basket.
RULING: The following procedure has been adopted to handle this specific situation if it is recognized before the opponents gain control or before the next throw-in begins: (a) charge Team A with an unsporting technical foul; (b) assess a delay-of-game warning for interfering with the ball after a goal; (c) cancel the field goal; (d) cancel any common foul(s) committed and any non-flagrant foul against A2 in the act of shooting; and (e) put “consumed” time back on the clock.
COMMENT: If there is no doubt the throw-in was a result of confusion, the entire procedure would be followed except no unsporting team technical foul would be charged. A team technical would be assessed if the team had received a previous delay warning. This procedure shall not be used in any other throw-in situation in which an official administers the throw-in and a mistake allows the wrong team to inbound the ball. (4-47-3, 7-6-6, 10-2-1b)
10.3.1 - Not Reporting - Not Being Beckoned In
Substitute A1 enters the court without reporting to the scorer. The infraction is discovered: (a) before the ball becomes live; or (b) after the ball becomes live.
RULING: In (a), a technical foul is charged to A1. In (b), it is too late to penalize A1.
Team A substitute No. 24: (a) reports to the scorer, but enters the court without being beckoned; or (b) goes directly from the bench and onto the court without being beckoned.
RULING: One technical foul is charged to No. 24 in (a) and (b). In (b), even though No. 24 failed to comply with both requirements, only one foul is charged.
10.3.2 - Not Reporting - Not Being Beckoned In
During a live ball and with the clock running, substitute A6 enters the court.
RULING: A technical foul is charged if recognized by an official before the ball becomes live following the first dead ball.
10.4.1 - Blood - Uniform Jersey Change(s)
A1 is directed to leave the game because of blood on his/her uniform jersey. The jersey cannot be cleaned immediately. Team A requests and is granted a time-out. A1 leaves the visual confines of the playing court and changes to a different jersey. The number change is reported to an official and the scorer and is recorded in the score book. (a) A1 completes the jersey change and the new number is recorded within the limits of the time-out; (b) A1’s original jersey is cleaned during halftime. A1 changes back into his/her original jersey and reports the change to an official and the scorer.
RULING: (a) Legal. There is no penalty. A1 may remain in the game. (b) Legal. There is no penalty. A1 may enter the game wearing the original jersey.
10.4.2 - Delay Returning to Court
A1 has the ball out of bounds for a throw-in. A1 completes the throw-in to A2 and then purposefully delays his/her return by taking four or five steps along the end line prior to coming inbounds behind a screen set by A3 and A4. A1 gets a return pass from A2 and takes an unchallenged try for goal.
RULING: A1 is charged with a technical foul for purposefully delaying his/her return to the court following the throw-in. A1’s movement out of bounds along the end line was to take advantage of the screen and return to the court in a more advantageous position.
After a lengthy substitution process involving multiple substitutions for both Team A and Team B, A5 goes to the bench and remains there, mistakenly believing he/she has been replaced. The ball is put in play even though Team A has only four players on the court. Team A is bringing the ball into A’s frontcourt when the coach of Team A realizes they have only four players. The coach yells for A5 to return and he/she sprints directly onto the court and catches up with the play.
RULING: No technical foul is charged to A5. A5’s return to the court was not deceitful, nor did it provide A5 an unfair positioning advantage on the court.
10.4.3 - Dunking and Grasping
A1 is dribbling rapidly toward A’s basket and appears to have an uncontested opportunity to score. B1 comes in quickly from the side and violently undercuts A1 who is in the act of shooting. A1 momentarily grasps the ring to regain balance and avoid injury.
RULING: A1 is not penalized for grasping the ring, as it clearly was done to prevent possible injury. B1 is charged with a flagrant personal foul and is disqualified. Whether the try was successful or not, A1 is awarded two free throws with no players along the lane. Following the last throw, Team A is awarded the ball for a throw-in at the out-of-bounds spot nearest to where the foul occurred.
A1 jumps for a try near the basket but loses his/her balance after releasing the ball. A1 grasps the basket to prevent injury. The ball: (a) is; or (b) is not, in the basket or on the ring while A1 is hanging on the ring.
RULING: In (a), it is basket interference by A1 which causes the ball to become dead and no goal can be scored. In (b), there is no violation unless A1 is still hanging on the ring when the ball touches the basket or goes into the basket. In both (a) and (b), A1’s grasping is not penalized if it is judged there was a possibility of injury had he/she not grasped the basket. (9-11)
A1 dunks the ball, then grasps the ring: (a) to avoid possible injury as he/she has lost his/her balance; or (b) because A2 or B1 is lying on the floor directly under the basket.
RULING: Grasping the ring to prevent injury as in (a) or (b), is permitted without penalty.
Only a few seconds remain in the second quarter. Team A is advancing the ball from backcourt to frontcourt. A1 is driving toward his/her basket and is about to dunk the ball when the signal indicates the end of the first half. Shortly after the signal, A1 dunks the ball and hangs on to the rim.
RULING: A1 is assessed a technical foul for dunking a dead ball. The foul is also charged indirectly to the head coach and results in the loss of coaching-box privileges since A1 is considered bench personnel. The third quarter begins with Team B being awarded two free throws and the ball at the division line. The alternating-possession arrow is not affected and remains unchanged. (4-34-2, 5-6-2 EXCEPTION 4)
10.4.4 - Contacting the Backboard
A1 tries for a goal, and (a) B1 jumps and attempts to block the shot but instead slaps or strikes the backboard and the ball goes into the basket; or (b) B1 vibrates the ring as a result of pulling on the net and the ball does not enter the basket.
RULING: In (a) legal and the basket counts; and (b) a technical foul is charged to B1 and there is no basket.
COMMENT: The purpose of the rule is to penalize intentional contact with the backboard while a shot or try is involved or placing a hand on the backboard to gain an advantage. A player who strikes either backboard so forcefully it cannot be ignored because it is an attempt to draw attention to the player, or a means of venting frustration may be assessed a technical foul pursuant to Rule 10-4-3.
10.4.5 - Delay By Free-thrower
The calling official has reported the foul and has given directions to players along the lane. The official is ready to put the ball at free thrower A1’s disposal, but A1 is at the sideline talking to the coach.
RULING: A technical foul for delay is charged to A1. No warning is authorized in this situation. (10-4-5c)
10.4.6 - Unsporting Fouls
Does holding or moving a hand or hands in front of the face of a player who has the ball, by an opponent who is in a legal guarding position, constitute unsporting tactics?
RULING: Yes. The described action is illegal. It is unsporting for a guard to take a position behind a post player, or to take a position facing an opponent, or to take a position with his/her back to the ball and facing the opponent and then in either case, wave or hold the hands in front of the opponent’s eyes so that the opponent cannot see. Holding or waving hands near the eye for the ostensible purpose of obstructing an opponent’s vision is unsporting. (10-4-6c, 10-4-6d)
A1 has the ball out of bounds for a designated spot throw-in. B1 is putting great pressure on and the count is at four seconds when A1 throws the ball and it strikes B1’s face. The ball rebounds from B1’s face directly out of bounds.
RULING: The administering official will have to make a decision based upon a number of observations. Was the throw-in to B1’s face purely accidental or was it a voluntary, planned act? Was the ball contact caused by the movement of the defender? Was the act of a an unsporting nature? The administering official must be aware that players often react negatively in situations where they are frustrated or are retaliating for something which happened earlier in the game.
With 4 minutes remaining in the second quarter, B1 commits his/her third foul against airborne shooter A1; the try is unsuccessful. Team B’s coach sends B6 to the scorer’s table to replace B1 after A1’s first free-throw. B1’s replacement may not enter the game until after A1’s first free throw. B1, disgusted with the official’s ruling and realizing he/she will soon leave the game, goes and sits on the end of Team B’s bench just after the official reports the foul.
RULING: B1 is assessed an unsporting technical foul for leaving the court for an unauthorized reason to demonstrate disgust. A1 will attempt the two shootingfoul free throws followed by any Team A member attempting the two free throws for the technical foul. (3-3-2, 10-4-6i)
10.4.7 - Technical Foul Contact
B1 fouls A1 during an unsuccessful try. While the calling official is reporting the foul, A1 pushes B1 into another player.
RULING: Intentional contact while the ball is dead constitutes an intentional technical foul. If other dead-ball contact is not intentional or flagrant, it should be ignored. The foul by A1 creates a false double-foul situation.
10.4.10 - Throw-in Fouls
After a field goal, A1 has the ball out of bounds for a throw-in. Thrower A1 holds the ball: (a) B2 crosses the boundary line and fouls A1; or (b) B2 reaches through the out-of-bounds plane and touches the ball while in the hands of A1.
RULING: It is an intentional personal foul in (a), and a technical foul in (b). In (a), such a contact foul with the thrower during a throw-in shall be considered intentional, or if it is violent, it should be ruled flagrant.
COMMENT: Either act is a foul and it should be called whenever it occurs during a game without regard to time or score or whether the team had or had not been warned for a delay-of-game situation. If the player making the throw-in (A1) reaches through the out-of-bounds plane into the court and B1 then slaps the ball from the hand of A1, no violation has occurred. B1 has merely slapped a live ball from the hands of A1. (4-19-3, 4-19-4, 9-2-10 PENALTY 3, 9-2-10 PENALTY 4)
After a field goal, the score is A-55, B-54. A1 has the ball out of bounds for a throw-in with two seconds remaining in the game. A1 throws the ball toward A2 who also is out of bounds along the end line. B2 reaches across the end line and grabs or slaps the ball while it is in flight. Time expires close to the moment the official indicates the infraction.
RULING: A technical foul is charged against B2. The remaining time or whether Team B had been previously warned for a delay-of-game situation is not a factor. No free throws are awarded as the winner of the game has been determined. (9-2-10 PENALTY 3, 9-2-10 PENALTY 4)
Team A scores near the end of the fourth quarter and is trailing by one point. B1 has the ball and is moving along the end line to make the throw-in. A2 steps out of bounds and fouls B1. Is the foul personal or technical?
RULING: This is an intentional personal foul. The time remaining to be played or whether Team A had been previously warned for a delay-of-game situation is not a factor. If the team had not been warned, the foul constitutes the warning. (4-19-1, 9-2-10 PENALTY 4)
10.5 - Ejection
(a) The head coach is charged (directly or indirectly) with a third technical foul, or a second direct technical; or (b) A1 commits a flagrant technical foul against B1.
RULING: In (a), the coach shall leave the vicinity or the playing area and have no further contact with the team. The official has no option and may not set aside the provision which requires removal. This also applies to all adult bench personnel who receive two technical fouls. In (b), the flagrant technical foul disqualifies A1 from further participation in the contest. A disqualified team member or student bench personnel shall go to or remain on the bench. However, in an unusual situation, an official has the authority to require that these individuals who have committed a flagrant technical foul must leave the vicinity of the court. This action is necessary when permitting such offenders to remain at courtside would tend to incite the crowd, to incite the opponents, or to subject the officials, opponents or others administering the game, to unsporting harassment. In such circumstances, the official should require the individual who has committed a flagrant foul to leave the vicinity of the court with an adult supervisor. It must be emphasized that an official does have this authority, when the circumstances resulting from any flagrant foul warrant it. (10-5 PENALTY NOTE)
10.5.1 - Bench Technicals
A technical foul is charged to: (a) a Team A substitute; (b) Team B’s manager; (c) Team A’s athletic trainer; or (d) Team B’s assistant coach. In all cases, the foul is charged because of uncomplimentary remarks addressed to an official.
RULING: The individuals in (a), (b), (c) and (d) are all considered to be bench personnel and have violated the rules governing conduct while on the “bench.” A second technical charged to any of these individuals results in disqualification. In addition to charging a technical to the individuals in all cases, the technical foul is also charged indirectly to the head coach resulting in the loss of coaching-box privileges. A second technical foul charged directly, or the third technical foul (direct or indirect) charged to the head coach results in similar disqualification and ejection. (10-5-1a)
At halftime, as the teams, coaches and officials are making their way through a hallway to the dressing room, a Team A member inappropriately addresses one of the officials.
RULING: The official must decide if the offense is major. Under 4-48, if not deemed to be major and neither a warning nor technical has been charged (direct or indirect) to the head coach, the bench personnel could be issued a warning. If a warning is issued, this would be reported to both teams, recorded in the scorebook, and the head coach would not lose coaching-box privileges. If the offense was judged to be major or a warning or technical has already been issued to the head coach, a technical foul is charged to the team member and is also charged indirectly to the head coach resulting in the loss of coaching-box privileges. The third quarter will begin with two Team B free throws and the ball awarded at the division line for a throw-in. The alternating- possession arrow is unaffected. Team A will also have one foul toward the team-foul count. During intermission, all team members are bench personnel and are penalized accordingly. If the conduct is flagrant, the team member shall be disqualified. (4-48, 10-5-1a)
After the signal to end the first half, A1 removes his/her jersey near the team bench.
RULING: A technical foul is charged to A1 and an indirect technical foul is charged to the head coach resulting in the loss of coaching-box privileges; A1 is considered bench personnel in this situation. (10-5-1h)
A1 commits his/her fifth foul and is disqualified. On the way to the team bench, A1 removes his/her shirt or pulls it over their face: (a) before the coach is notified; or (b) after the coach is notified.
RULING: In (a) and (b), a technical foul is charged to A1. In (b), an indirect technical foul is also charged to the head coach resulting in the loss of coaching-box privileges. A1 is considered to be bench personnel. (10-5-1h)
Fifteen minutes before the game is scheduled to start, team member A1 dunks. Two minutes later A2 dunks.
RULING: A1 and A2 are both charged with a technical foul. In addition, the head coach is charged indirectly with a technical foul for each act. The two fouls are team fouls for purpose of reaching the bonus. When dunking occurs during the pregame practice period the official notifies the team member and the head coach, but does not sound the whistle. If the game is played in a state which utilizes the optional coaching box, the coach should be informed that he/she has lost the privilege of using the coaching box for the entire game. (10-5-1i)
10.5.1 - Withhold Whistle
A1 is driving toward the basket for an apparent goal when the official, while trailing the play advancing in the direction in which the ball is being advanced, is cursed by the head coach or bench personnel of Team B. How should the official handle this situation?
RULING: The official shall withhold blowing the whistle until A1 has either made or missed the shot. The official shall then sound the whistle and assess the Team B head coach or bench personnel with a technical foul. If the official judges the act to be flagrant, the offender shall be ejected. If A’s coach or bench personnel was the offender, the whistle shall be sounded immediately when the unsporting act occurs. (10-5-1a)
10.5.4 - Standing Bench Personnel
Late in the game, A1 has been replaced and returns to the bench. (a) Some team members of Team A rise to applaud A1; or (b) the coach of Team A rises and shakes hands with A1 as A1 leaves the court. In both cases the individuals are immediately seated.
RULING: There has been no violation of the bench conduct rule as it is specifically indicated that bench personnel may rise to acknowledge a replaced player. Displays of sporting behavior and fair play are to be encouraged and are clearly identifiable as such. If the state has adopted the optional coaching box, the head coach may remain standing. (10-5-4d, 10-6-1)
Team A coaches and substitutes are all standing during a free throw by A1. The infraction is detected by the officials. How many technical fouls are assessed?
RULING: In a situation where similar multiple infractions occur at the same time, it is not the intent of the rules to penalize each individual infraction as a separate technical foul. One technical foul is charged to Team A and it is also charged indirectly to the head coach in this situation, resulting in the loss of coaching-box privileges.
Following a charged time-out the ball is bounced to A1 for a throw-in even though Team B is still gathered at the sideline. The substitutes are off the bench and the coaches are huddled around the seated players. Should Team B be charged with a technical foul(s) for substitutes and coaches being off the bench or outside the optional coaching box?
RULING: No. The resumption-of-play procedure takes precedence and no penalty is assessed for the other sideline infractions.
10.5.5 - Entering Court During Fight
Post-players A1 and B1 begin punching each other and play is stopped. Two substitutes from each team leave the bench area and come onto the court. The four substitutes: (a) do not become involved in the fight; (b) all become involved in the fight; (c) substitutes A6, A7 and B6 do not participate in the fight, but B7 becomes involved in the fight; (d) head coach enters the court to assist in curtailing the fighting.
RULING: A1 and B1 are charged with flagrant fouls and are disqualified, but no free throws result from the double personal flagrant fouls. The four substitutes are charged with flagrant technical fouls and are disqualified. No free throws are awarded for the simultaneous technical fouls as the number of bench personnel leaving the bench and the penalties are the same for both teams. In (a), one technical foul is also charged indirectly to the head coach of each team. In (b), each head coach is charged indirectly with two technical fouls (one for each bench player leaving the bench and becoming involved in the fight). In (c), the Team A head coach is charged indirectly with one technical foul and the Team B head coach is indirectly charged with two technical fouls (one for substitutes B6 and B7 leaving the bench, and one for B7 becoming involved in the fight). In situations (a), (b) and (c), the ball is put in play at the point of interruption. Legal in (d).
A fight breaks out between A1 and B1 during a deadball and clock-stopped situation. The head coach of Team A rushes onto the court.
RULING: A1 and B1 are charged with flagrant technical fouls and are disqualified. No free throws are awarded for the double technical foul by A1 and B1. Since the head coach is allowed on the court without being beckoned by an official when a fight occurs, he/she is not charged with a flagrant technical foul and would not be disqualified. Resume play using point of interruption. (4-2-1, 4-36)
Substitutes A6, A7 and A8 enter the floor and fight with substitutes B6, B7 and B8.
RULING: A6, A7, A8, B6, B7 and B8 are charged with flagrant fouls and disqualified. Each head coach is charged with three indirect technical fouls and disqualified and must leave the vicinity or the playing area and have no further contact with the team. Because the substitute’s fouls were offsetting, no free throws will be awarded. Charge each team with three fouls toward the bonus and resume play at the point of interruption.
10.5.5 - Simultaneous Technicals by Opponents
While the ball is live, players A1 and B1 commit fouls against each other at approximately the same time. A1 then punches B1. B6 and B7 leave the confines of the bench but do not participate in the fight.
RULING: The common fouls by A1 and B1 constitute a double personal foul so no free throws are awarded. A1’s punch constitutes fighting and results in a flagrant technical foul and disqualification, and two free throws are awarded. B6 and B7 are assessed technical fouls and disqualified for entering the court illegally during a fight. Although B6 and B7 are both assessed technical fouls, only one is penalized with two free throws. The coach is penalized one indirect technical foul for B6 and B7 leaving the bench. (4-19-8, 10-4-7, 10-7 PENALTIES (Rule 10 Summary) 8a, 10-7 PENALTIES 8b) Administration of Penalties: The double personal fouls offset and no free throws are awarded. With the marked lane spaces clear, any member of Team B (other than B6 and B7) attempts two free throws for the flagrant technical foul (fighting) by A1. These attempts are followed by any member of Team A (other than A1) attempting two free throws (with the marked lane spaces clear) for the technical foul charged to B6 and B7 for leaving the bench during a fight, but not participating. Following the free throw attempts by Team A, play is resumed with a throw-in by Team A at the division line opposite the scorer’s table.
A1 and B1 begin fighting and play is stopped. Substitute A6 leaves the bench area and enters the court to observe. B6 also enters the court at the same time, but B6 actually participates in the fight.
RULING: A1, B1, A6 and B6 are all disqualified. No free throws result from the double flagrant foul by A1 and B1 or from the simultaneous technical fouls by A6 and B6. Each head coach is charged with one indirect technical foul resulting in the loss of coaching-box privileges. Play resumes at the point of interruption. (4-36, 10-4-8)
It appears a fight may occur on the playing court when (a) A6 and A7; or (b) A6 and B6 leave their respective benches.
RULING: In (a) and (b), all players leaving the bench are assessed flagrant fouls and disqualified. The respective head coach is assessed a maximum of one indirect technical foul (regardless of the number of players leaving the bench) resulting in the loss of coaching-box privileges. In (a), Team B is awarded two free throws and the ball for a division line throw-in. In (b), no free throws are awarded and the ball is put into play at the point of interruption. (4-36)
10.6.1 - Bench Conduct Situations
The coach of Team A leaves the bench area and goes to the table to seek information other than a correctable error: (a) during a time-out; or (b) during the intermission between the first and second quarters.
RULING: A technical foul is charged directly to the coach in both (a) and (b) resulting in the loss of coaching-box privileges. If this information is required, it must be secured by a manager or statistician. A coach is not permitted at the table for this purpose. To allow exceptions would open the door for exploitation and would result in situations which could not be enforced consistently.
The coach of Team B rises and accompanies B6 to the table to make sure the substitute reports properly.
RULING: This is a technical foul charged directly to the coach resulting in the loss of coaching-box privileges. The coach is not allowed to be off the bench or out of the optional coaching box for this purpose.
The coach of Team B sits on the opposite end of the bench from where the optional coaching box is located. The coach rises only when permitted by rule.
RULING: Legal. The coach is not required to use the optional coaching box even though it has been adopted by the state association. However, if the coach begins the game by sitting somewhere other than where the box is located, he/she may not use the box privileges any time during the game. The coach must begin the game in a position within the box if he/she wishes to stand when permitted under the optional coaching-box provisions.
10.6.2 - Replacement of a Disqualified or Injured Player
A1 has been injured and has received extensive medical attention on the court. The coach: (a) helps assist the injured player to the bench; or (b) remains at the bench area while A1 is treated and helped to the bench. How much time does the coach have to replace A1?
RULING: In both (a) and (b), the coach will have 15 seconds to replace the injured player. In (a), the 15 seconds should start after the coach can turn his/her attention from the injured athlete to the duty of making a replacement. In (b), the 15 seconds would begin as soon as A1 has been returned to the bench. In both cases, the timer should be instructed by the official to sound a warning horn and start timing the 15 seconds and sound the horn to notify the official after 15 seconds have elapsed.
A1 has been disqualified from the game for committing his/her fifth foul or a flagrant foul. The coach of Team A is notified and then the official instructs the timer to begin the replacement period. The player is then notified of the disqualification. The coach of Team A rises from the bench and: (a) talks until the sounding of the warning horn with the four remaining players who have gathered near the boundary; (b) immediately sends A6 to the table to report in. The coach then gathers the players at the sideline for a conference; or (c) sends A6 toward the table but the timer indicates the 15 seconds have expired before A6 gets there.
RULING: Legal in (a), as long as a substitute reports before the 15 seconds have elapsed. In (b), play will resume as soon as A6 has reported to the scorer. In (c), a technical foul is charged directly to the coach.
10.6.3 - Replacement of a Disqualified or Injured Player
A5 has just received his/her fifth foul of the game. A5 (a) is erroneously permitted to remain in the game for another two minutes before the scorer realizes the mistake; or (b) leaves the game after the coach is notified of the disqualification. At the intermission between the third and fourth quarter, A5 reports as a substitute and subsequently enters the game.
RULING: In (a), as soon as the error is discovered, the player is removed from the game, no penalties are assessed. In (b), A5 will not actually “participate” until the ball becomes live. If detected prior to the ball becoming live, A5 would be directed to the bench and no penalty assessed unless the official deemed it was a deliberate attempt to circumvent the rules. If detected after the ball becomes live, it is a technical foul charged directly to the head coach resulting in the loss of coaching-box privileges. The player is immediately removed from the game and Team B is awarded two free throws and a division-line throw-in. (2-11-5 NOTE 2)
10.6.5 - Unauthorized Leaving of the Bench Area/Playing Court
Airborne shooter A1 is fouled by B1 after the ball is released on the try. Playing time for the second quarter expires while the unsuccessful try is in flight. Since no players are required to line up for the free throws, Team B’s head coach takes the team to the locker room to begin the intermission.
RULING: Team B’s head coach is assessed a direct technical foul for permitting team members to leave the bench/court for an unauthorized reason. Even though no time remains on the game clock, the quarter doesn’t end until A1’s free throws are completed; therefore, the technical foul is part of the second quarter. A1 will attempt the two shooting-foul free throws followed by any Team A member attempting the two free throws for the technical foul. The Team B head coach has lost coaching-box privileges for the remainder of the game. The third quarter will begin with the alternating-possession procedure. (5-6-2 EXCEPTION 3)
A spectator heckles Team A member, A9, while he/she is sitting on Team A’s bench. A9 leaves the bench area and goes into the stands to confront the fan.
RULING: Team A’s head coach is assessed a direct technical foul for permitting A9 to leave the bench area for an unauthorized reason. Team B is awarded two free throws and the ball for a division line throw-in. The Team A head coach has lost coaching-box privileges for the remainder of the game.
10.7.1 - Contact
B1 takes a certain spot on the court before A1 jumps in the air to catch a pass: (a) A1 lands on B1; or (b) B1 moves to a new spot while A1 is airborne. A1 lands on one foot and then charges into B1.
RULING: In (a) and (b), the foul is on A1. (4-23-5d)
The bonus is in effect and while the ball is in flight during a try for a field goal by A1, A2 charges into B1. Following this there is a basket-interference violation by: (a) B2 or (b) A3.
RULING: In (a), both the foul by A2 and the violation by B2 are penalized, but in the reverse order of occurrence. Two points are first awarded to Team A because of the violation by B2. B1 is then awarded a one-and-one. Had the bonus not been in effect in (a), B would have been awarded the ball out of bounds at its end line where the basket was awarded. In (b), there are no rule complications. The violation by A3 caused the ball to become dead. Ordinarily, the ball would go to B out-of-bounds at the spot nearest the violation. However, this penalty is ignored because of the penalty enforcement for the foul by A2. (7-5-7, 9-11 PENALTY)
B1 is standing behind the plane of the backboard before A1 jumps for a lay-up shot. The forward momentum causes airborne shooter A1 to charge into B1.
RULING: B1 is entitled to the position obtained legally before A1 left the floor. If the ball goes through the basket before or after the contact occurs, the player-control foul cancels the goal. However, if B1 moves into the path of A1 after A1 has left the floor, the foul is on B1. B1’s foul on the airborne shooter is a foul during the act of shooting. If the shot is successful, one free throw is awarded and if it is unsuccessful, two free throws result. (4-19-1, 4-19-6, 6-7-4, 10 PENALTY 2, 10 PENALTY 5a)
10.7.7 - Contact
During congested play in the free-throw semi-circle, B1 and B2 are less than 3 feet apart when dribbler A1 fakes to one side and then causes contact in attempting to dribble between them.
RULING: Unless one of the defensive players is faked out of position to permit adequate space for the dribbler to go between without making contact, it is a player-control foul on A1.
COMMENT: Screening principles apply to the dribbler who attempts to cut off an opponent who is approaching in a different path from the rear. In this case, the dribbler must allow such opponent a maximum of two steps or an opportunity to stop or avoid contact. When both the dribbler and the opponent are moving in exactly the same path and same direction, the player behind is responsible for contact which results if the player in front slows down or stops. (4-7-2)
10.7.9 - Contact
Dribbler A1 has established a straight-line path toward a certain area of the court. Can A1 maintain this specific path?
RULING: Only to the extent that no opponent who is behind or to the side can crowd A1 out of this path. Opponents may attempt to obtain a legal guarding position in A1’s path at any time. To obtain an initial legal guarding position, both feet of the guard must be on the court and the guard must be facing the dribbler prior to contact. Time and distance are not factors in obtaining an initial guarding position on an opponent with the ball. Once legal position is obtained, the guard can move to maintain position in the dribbler’s path. The requirement of having two feet on the court does not apply in maintaining a legal guarding position, provided the guard maintains in-bound status. (4-23)
10.7.11 - Contact
A1 holds the ball near the center of the court. A2 is on the right side of the basket and closely guarded by B1. A3 moves to a position behind B1, after which A2 circles B1 and receives a pass on the left side of the basket and scores.
RULING: Legal goal unless there was contact and responsibility for it is charged to A3. This will depend on whether A3 took a position at such distance as to permit B1 one step space for normal movement without making contact. (4-40)
A1, in attempting to screen, takes a stationary position in the path of moving B1. The position of A1: (a) is so close that B1 cannot avoid A1 and contact results; or (b) is far enough away so that B1, who is aware of the position of A1, has an opportunity to avoid A1 but contact still results.
RULING: In (a), the foul is on A1 for blocking. In (b), B1 did not use the opportunity to avoid A1 and, therefore, is responsible for the contact and is charged with the foul. (4-40)
A defensive player takes a position in front of the post player A1 to prevent A1 from receiving the ball. A high pass is made over the head and out of reach of the defensive player. The post player A1 moves toward the basket to catch the pass and try for goal. As the pass is made, a teammate of the defensive player moves into the path of A1, in a guarding position. What are the rights of the pivot player A1 and the defensive player who moves into A1’s path?
RULING: The defensive player has switched to guard a player who does not have the ball. Therefore, the switching player must assume a position one or two strides in advance of the post player (depending upon the speed of movement of such player) to make the action legal. If the defensive player moves into the path of the post player A1 after A1 has control of the ball (provided the post player is not in the air at the time), the play becomes a guarding situation on a player with the ball and no distance or time limit is involved. (4-40)
A1 is running toward A’s goal but is looking back to receive a pass. B1 takes a position in the path of A1 while A1 is 10 feet away from B1. (a) A1 runs into B1 before receiving the ball; or (b) A1 receives the ball and before taking a step contacts B1.
RULING: In both (a) and (b), A1 is responsible for contact. In (a), B1’s position is legal if A1 has been given two strides prior to contact. In (b), since the position of B1 is legal when A1 has the ball, the contact is charging by A1. (4-40)
10.7.12 - Contact
A1 is dribbling in the frontcourt and B1 (a) places two hands on the dribbler; (b) places an extended arm bar on the dribbler; (c) places and keeps a hand on the dribbler; (d) contacts the dribbler more than once with the same hand or alternating hands.
RULING: Illegal in all cases. A personal foul shall be ruled any time this type of contact occurs on a player holding or dribbling the ball. (10-7-12)
A1 receives a pass in the lane. B1 (a) places two hands on the dribbler; (b) places an extended arm bar on the dribbler; (c) places and keeps a hand on the dribbler; (d) contacts the dribbler more than once with the same hand or alternating hands.
RULING: Illegal in all cases. A personal foul shall be ruled any time this type of contact occurs on a player holding or dribbling the ball. (10-7-12)