4.1.1 - Center Restraining Circle
A1 is high in the air on a jump shot in the lane. A1 releases the ball on a try and is then fouled by B1 who has also jumped in an unsuccessful attempt to block the shot. A1’s try is: (a) successful; or (b) unsuccessful.
RULING: A1 is an airborne shooter when the ball is released until one foot returns to the floor. An airborne shooter is in the act of shooting. B1 has fouled A1 in the act of shooting. A1 is awarded one free throw in (a), and two in (b). (4-41-1)
4.3.2 - Control - For Alternating Possession
A1 is fouled by B1 just after the ball leaves the referee’s hand(s) on the jump to start the first extra period of play. Both teams are in the bonus. How is the alternating-possession arrow established?
RULING: When the bonus is in effect, the possession arrow is set toward the opponent’s basket when the ball is placed at the disposal of the free thrower.
4.3.3 - Control - For Alternating Possession
During the jump to start the game, A1 slaps the ball out of bounds. Before the ball is at B1’s disposal for a throw-in, B2 is charged with a technical foul.
RULING: Team A will attempt two free throws followed by a division-line throw-in opposite the table. When the ball is at the disposal of the thrower of Team A, the arrow will be set pointing toward Team B’s basket.
4.4.1 - Backcourt - Frontcourt - Ball Location
As Team A is advancing the ball from its backcourt toward its frontcourt, A1 passes the ball to A2. A2 catches the ball while both feet are on the floor – with one foot on either side of the division line. In this situation, either foot may be the pivot foot. (a) A2 lifts the foot which is in the backcourt and then puts it back on the floor in the backcourt; or (b) A2 lifts the foot which is in the frontcourt, pivots and puts it on the floor in the backcourt.
RULING: In (a), it is a backcourt violation. When A2, while holding the ball, lifts the foot which was in the backcourt, the ball is now in the frontcourt. When A2’s foot then touches in the backcourt, it is a violation. In (b), when A2 lifts the foot which is in the frontcourt and places it down in the backcourt, the location of the ball has not changed. The ball is still in the backcourt and no violation has occurred. (4-35-2)
4.4.4 - Ball Touches and Official
The official is in Team A’s frontcourt when he/she is contacted by a pass thrown by A1 from Team A’s backcourt. After touching the official, the ball: (a) goes out of bounds; or (b) rebounds to the backcourt where it is recovered by A2.
RULING: Touching the official is the same as touching the floor where the official is standing. In (a), the ball is awarded to B for a throw-in. In (b), the ball has been in the frontcourt and then has gone to the backcourt while in Team A’s control. It is a violation for A1 to cause the ball to go from A’s backcourt to frontcourt and return to backcourt untouched if A1 or a teammate is first to touch it after it has returned to backcourt. (9-9-2)
4.8.2 - Team Fouls to Reach Bonus
(a) A1 is charged with a player-control foul; or (b) a Team A member dunks during the pregame warm-ups.
RULING: In both (a) and (b), the foul counts toward disqualification and it counts as one of the seven team fouls to reach the bonus. In (b), a technical foul is also charged indirectly to Team A’s head coach resulting in the loss of coaching-box privileges. (10-4-3)
4.12 - Player and/or Team Control
A player is in control when the player is holding or dribbling a live ball, but team control includes passing activity. When a team secures control, that team continues to be in control until the ball is in flight on a try or tap for goal, or an opponent has secured control or the ball has become dead. This has an influence on rules such as team-control fouls, three-seconds and frontcourt/backcourt. No team is in control while the ball is dead, during a jump ball, after the ball has left the hand on a try or tap for goal, nor during the period which follows any of these acts while the ball is slapped away from other players in an attempt to secure control.
4.12.1 - Player and/or Team Control
A1 drives toward the lane and goes up in the air for a jump shot. Before A1 becomes airborne, B1 obtains a legal position on the court that is directly in line with A1’s drive. (a) Before; or (b) after releasing the ball, A1 illegally contacts B1. In both cases, the ball goes through the basket.
RULING: A1 has committed a player-control foul in both (a) and (b). There is no goal in either case. Player-control foul provisions in (b) continue until airborne shooter A1 returns one foot to the floor. Team B is awarded the ball for a throw-in at the out-of-bounds spot nearest the foul. (7-5-3a)
A1 is dribbling in A’s backcourt when the ball accidentally strikes his/her ankle and bounces away. During the interrupted dribble, A1 fouls B1 in attempting to continue the dribble.
RULING: A team-control foul is charged to A1. It is not a player control foul as the contact occurred during an interrupted dribble. (4-19-7)
4.12.2 - Player and/or Team Control
A1’s missed try rebounds directly to A’s backcourt where A2 gains control. Is this a violation?
RULING: No. Both player and team control ended when A1 released the ball on the try. The rebound into A’s backcourt was not in control of either team. (9-9-1)
During a throw-in by A-1 from the end line by Team A’s basket: (a) A2 is in the restricted lane area for four seconds of the throw-in count; or (b) the throw-in is touched by A2 before it goes across the division line where it is recovered by A3.
RULING: Legal in (a) and (b), even though Team A is in team control during the throw-in. There is no three-second count in (a) since team control had not yet been established in Team A’s frontcourt. There is no backcourt violation in (b) since team control had not yet been established in team A’s frontcourt before the ball went into Team A’s backcourt. The throw-in ends when A2 legally touches the ball, but the backcourt count does not start until A3 gains control in his/her backcourt. (9-7, 9-8, 9-9)
4.14.1 - Disqualification
A1 is fouled by B1 while Team A is in the bonus. The covering official is at the table reporting the foul when A1 is charged with a technical foul by the official who is observing the players. The foul on A1 is his/her fifth.
RULING: A1 is disqualified as both personal and technical fouls are counted. Because A1 has been disqualified he/she will not be allowed to attempt the free throw(s) resulting from B1’s foul. The substitute for A1 will shoot the free throw(s). (8-2)
A1 is charged with his/her fourth personal foul and reacts by using profanity. The covering official charges A1 with a technical foul.
RULING: A1 is disqualified. The technical foul brings A1’s total fouls to five, which results in automatic disqualification. This technical is not charged indirectly to the head coach, as A1 was not “bench personnel” when the technical foul was charged. (4-14-2, 10-4-6b)
A1 is fouled by B2 and is awarded two free throws. The foul is B2’s fifth foul. The new trail official reports the fifth foul to Team B’s coach. Before a substitute is made, the lead official incorrectly permits A1 to attempt the first free throw. The officials realize the error and huddle to discuss the situation.
RULING: The result of the first attempt shall stand. Team B’s head coach shall be notified of B2’s disqualification. Once B2 has been replaced, A1 shall attempt the second free throw.
A1 is fouled by B1 while Team A is in double bonus. In frustration, A1 pushes B1 after the ball becomes dead. A1 is assessed a technical foul. A1 successfully makes both free throws for the personal foul assessed to B1. B3 is ready to attempt the free throw for the technical foul by A1. The official scorer notifies the officials that the technical foul on A1 was his/her fifth.
RULING: Officials notify the Team A coach and A1 of the disqualification and allow a substitute for A1. The points made by A1 will stand. B3 is allowed to shoot the free throws for the technical foul and Team B is given the ball at half court to continue the game. (2-10-1c, 4-14-1)
4.15 - Dribble - Legal and Illegal Movement
It is not possible for a player to travel during a dribble. A player is not dribbling while slapping the ball during a jump, when a pass rebounds from his/her hand, when he/she fumbles, or when he/she bats a rebound or pass away from other players who are attempting to get it. The player is not in control under these conditions. It is a dribble when a player stands still and bounces the ball. It is not a dribble when a player stands still and holds the ball and touches it to the floor once or more than once.
4.15.1 - Dribble - Legal and Illegal Movement
While rebounding, A1 touches the ball while trying to gain control, after which: (a) A1 allows the ball to strike the floor to begin a dribble; or (b) A1 catches the ball and then pushes the ball to the floor to begin a dribble.
RULING: Legal in both (a) and (b). The dribble does not begin until A1 has gained control.
A1’s throw-in pass is beyond A2. (a) A2 reaches out and slaps the ball toward A’s basket; or (b) A2 muffs the pass. In both situations. A2 then gains control and dribbles to the basket and scores.
RULING: No violation in either (a) or (b).
A1 attempts a pass to A2 during pressing action in A’s backcourt. The ball hits B’s backboard and deflects directly back to A1 who catches the ball and: (a) passes the ball to A2; or (b) starts a dribble.
4.15.4 - Dribble - Legal and Illegal Movement
As dribbler A1 attempts to change directions to avoid guard B1, he/she allows the ball to come to rest in one hand in bringing the ball from the right to the left side of the body. A1 pushes the ball to the floor in an attempt to continue the dribble.
RULING: When A1 palmed/carried the ball, the dribble ended and when he/she pushed the ball to the floor a violation occurred. (9-5)
A1, while advancing the ball by dribbling, manages to keep a hand in contact with the ball until it reaches its maximum height. A1 maintains such contact as the ball descends, pushing it to the floor at the last moment; however, after six or seven bounces, A1’s hand is in contact with the ball and the palm of the hand on this particular dribble is skyward so that the ball is resting on top of the hand.
RULING: The dribble has ended and a violation occurs if A1 dribbles again. The dribble ended when the ball came to rest in the palm of A1’s hand. (9-5)
After dribbling and coming to a stop, A1 throws the ball: (a) against the opponent’s backboard and catches the rebound; (b) against an official, immediately recovers the ball and dribbles again; or (c) against his/her own backboard in an attempt to score (try), catches the rebound and dribbles again.
RULING: A1 has violated in both (a) and (b). Throwing the ball against the opponent’s backboard or an official constitutes another dribble, provided A1 is first to touch the ball after it strikes the official or the board. In (c), the action is legal. Once the ball is released on the try, there is no player or team control, therefore, A1 can recover the rebound and begin a dribble.
While dribbling: (a) A1 bats the ball over the head of an opponent, runs around the opponent, bats the ball to the floor and continues to dribble; (b) the ball bounces away but A1 is able to get to it and continues to dribble; (c) the ball hits A1’s foot and bounces away but A1 is able to overtake and pick it up; or (d) A1 fumbles the ball in ending the dribble so that A1 must run to recover it.
RULING: Violation in (a), because the ball was touched twice by A1’s hand(s) during a dribble, before it touched the floor. In (b), even though the dribble was interrupted it has not ended and A1 may continue the dribble. In (c), the dribble ended when A1 caught the ball; and it ended in (d) when it was fumbled. Even though the dribble has ended in (c) and (d), A1 may recover the ball but may not dribble again. (9-5)
While A1 is dribbling in A’s backcourt, the ball legally touches B1’s leg, causing it to bounce away from A1. A1 quickly recovers the ball with two hands and then starts another dribble.
RULING: Legal. The touch by B1 ended the original dribble and A1 could then recover and dribble again. However, the touch by B1 did not end team control and the 10-second backcourt count continues. (9-5-2)
4.18.2 - Fighting
4.19.3 - Intentional Foul
B1 is charged with an intentional foul on A1 who is in the act of shooting: (a) a successful two-point or three-point try; (b) an unsuccessful two-point try; or (c) an unsuccessful three-point try.
RULING: In (a) and (b), A1 is awarded two free throws. In (c), A1 is awarded three free throws. In all situations following the free throws, Team A is awarded a throw-in at the out-of-bounds spot nearest the foul.
A1 drives to the basket with B1 in pursuit. As A1 begins the act of shooting, B1 gets a hand on the ball from behind and the subsequent contact takes A1 forcefully to the floor and out of bounds.
Team A leads by three points with four seconds remaining in the fourth quarter. Team A is to throw-in from a spot out of bounds on the end line. Players begin jockeying for positions just after the official has handed the ball to A1. B1, while trying to deny a pass from A1 to A2: (a) grabs A2’s jersey; or (b) pushes A2 from behind.
RULING: In (a) and (b), it is an intentional personal foul designed to keep the clock from starting or to neutralize an opponent’s obvious advantageous position.
4.19.3 SITUATION D:
Late in the fourth quarter Team B is trailing by six points. Team B’s head coach begins to yell to his or her players to “foul, foul, foul!” B1 responds by (a) grabbing A1 from behind, or (b) reaching for the ball but illegally contacting A1 on the arm.
RULING: In (a), an intentional foul shall be called. In (b), a common foul shall be called as B1 was making a legitimate attempt to “play the ball.”
COMMENT: Fouling near the end of a game is an acceptable coaching and playing strategy. Officials must determine if a foul is intentional by judging the fouling act itself, not whether or not the coach instructed a player to perform the act.
A1 is dribbling in the frontcourt. A3 and B4 are in the lane. (a) A3 throws B4 to the floor; (b) B4 throws A3 to the floor.
RULING: In (a), illegal and in (b), intentional foul due to excessive contact while the ball is live. (4-19-3d)
4.19.5 - Technical Foul
4.19.6 - Player-Control Foul
B1 obtains a legal position in A1’s path before A1 becomes airborne. A1 jumps and releases the ball on a try for goal. Before returning to the floor, airborne shooter A1 charges into B1. (a) Before the foul by A1, B2 commits basket interference; or (b) after the foul on A1, B2 slaps the ball on its downward flight.
RULING: In (a), both the violation and the foul are penalized. The basket interference by B2 causes the ball to become dead immediately. The violation is penalized by awarding the two points. The player-control foul on A1 is also charged. Team B is awarded the ball for a throw-in anywhere along the end line. A defensive-goaltending or basket-interference violation committed prior to a player-control foul does not contradict the general statement that when a player-control foul occurs that player cannot score. In the case of a defensive violation, it is the violation which results in awarding the score. In (b), the ball becomes dead and the try ends immediately when the player-control foul on A1 occurs. The action of B2 is ignored as goaltending cannot occur after the try has ended. The ball is awarded to Team B for a throw-in from a designated spot out of bounds closest to where the foul occurred. (4-12-1, 6-7-4, 6-7-9 EXCEPTION, 7-5-4a, 9-11)
4.19.7 - Team-Control Foul
A1 is dribbling the ball in the frontcourt when A2 sets an illegal screen against B2. Team B is in the bonus.
A1 is passing the ball to A2 in the team’s frontcourt when B2 deflects the pass. As A2 and B2 are attempting to retrieve the loose ball, A2 illegally pushes B2 from behind and is called for a foul. Team B is in the bonus.
A1 ends the dribble and passes the ball to A2: (a) while the ball is in the air; or (b) after A2 has control, A1 charges into B2.
RULING: The foul on A1 in both (a) and (b) is a team-control foul. Team B is awarded the ball for a throw-in at a designated spot nearest to where the foul occurred. (4-12-2)
A1 has the ball for a throw in. The throw-in pass deflects off of A2. As A2 and B2 are attempting to retrieve the loose throw-in pass, A2 illegally pushes B2 from behind and the action is ruled a foul. Team B is in the bonus.
RULING: Team A is in control during this throw in, therefore a team-control foul has been committed. B2 is awarded a throw in at a spot closest to where the foul occurred. (4-12-6)
4.19.8 - Double Fouls
A1 and B1 foul one another at approximately the same time. The contact occurs during: (a) a live-ball situation; or (b) a dead-ball situation.
RULING: In (a), it is a double personal foul and in (b), it is a double technical foul. No free throws are awarded in (a) or (b) and play resumes at the point of interruption. (4-36)
While the ball is being dribbled near the division line, A1 and B1 are engaged in extremely rough play in the low post area and the covering official calls a double personal foul. After the whistle, A1 and B1 use profanity directed at each other and the covering official calls a double technical foul.
RULING: The double personal foul during the live ball results in no free throws. The dead-ball profanity results in a double technical foul, again with no free throws. A1 and B1 have each accumulated two fouls toward their five for disqualification. Play is resumed at the point of interruption. (4-36)
A1 drives for a try and jumps and releases the ball. Contact occurs between A1 and B1 after the release and before airborne shooter A1 returns one foot to the floor. One official rules a blocking foul on B1 and the other official rules a charging foul on A1. The try is (a) successful, or (b) not successful.
RULING: Even though airborne shooter A1 committed a charging foul, it is not a player-control foul because the two fouls result in a double personal foul. The double foul does not cause the ball to become dead on the try. In (a), the goal is scored; play is resumed at the point of interruption, which is a throw-in for Team B from anywhere along the end line. In (b), the point of interruption is a try in flight; therefore the alternating-possession procedure is used. (4-36)
A1 has possession of the ball and is about to attempt the first of a one-and-one free-throw situation when A4 and B4 are whistled for a double foul.
RULING: A4 and B4 are charged with personal fouls and play shall resume from the point of interruption. A1 receives the ball to attempt the one-and-one free throw with the lane spaces properly occupied. (4-36-2b, 7-5-3b)
A1 has control of the ball in Team A’s frontcourt. Post players A5 and B5 are pushing each other in an attempt to gain a more advantageous position on the block while (a) A1 is dribbling the ball; (b) the ball is in the air on a pass from A1 to A2; or (c) the ball is in the air on an unsuccessful try for goal by A1. An official calls a double personal foul on A5 and B5.
RULING: In (a) and (b), Team A had control of the ball when the double foul occurred, and thus play will be resumed at the point of interruption. Team A will have a designated spot throw-in nearest the location where the ball was located when the double foul occurred. In (c), no team has control while a try for goal is in flight, and since the try was unsuccessful, there is no obvious point of interruption. Play will be resumed with an alternating possession throw-in nearest the location where the ball was located when the double foul occurred. Had the try been successful, the point of interruption would have been a throw-in for Team B from anywhere along the end line. (4-36, 7-5-3b)
A1 releases the ball on a throw-in, and before it is legally touched, A2 and B2 commit fouls against each other.
RULING: When a double foul occurs, play is resumed at the point of interruption. Since Team A’s throw-in had not ended, the point of interruption would be a throw-in by Team A. (4-36-2b, 10 PENALTY 1c)
4.19.9 - False Double Fouls
A1 leaps high and is fouled by B1 as he/she taps the ball which subsequently goes through A’s basket. A1 fouls B2 in returning to the floor.
RULING: This is a false double foul. The foul by B1 does not cause the ball to become dead. However, the player-control foul by A1 does cause the ball to become dead and also dictates that no goal can be scored. Since the goal is not scored, A1 is awarded two free throws for the foul by B1. No players are allowed along the lane as Team B will be awarded the ball following the last free throw. If the last throw is successful, the throw-in is from anywhere along the end line. If the last throw is unsuccessful, the throw-in is from a designated spot nearest the foul. (4-1, 4-11, 4-41-1, 6-7-7EXCEPTION c, 6-7-4, 7-5-4a)
B1 holds A1, whose team is in the bonus. A1 is successful in both free-throw attempts. While B1 is making the throw-in from behind the end line, A1 pushes B2 near midcourt. Team B is or is not in the bonus situation.
RULING: If Team B is in the bonus, B2 is either awarded a one-and-one and the ball remains in play if either free-throw attempt touches the basket ring but is not successful, or is awarded two free throws and the ball remains in play if the second is unsuccessful. If the last free-throw attempt by B2 is successful, Team A shall put the ball in play from out of bounds anywhere along the end line by B’s basket. If Team B is not in the bonus, it is awarded the ball for a throw-in from a designated spot out of bounds nearest to where the foul occurred. Penalties are administered in the order in which the fouls occurred. (7-5-4a)
A1 has a breakaway lay-up. B1 commits a hard foul against A1 from behind and is called for an intentional foul. The Team A head coach protests, feeling the foul should have been a flagrant foul and is assessed a technical foul.
RULING: Award A1’s goal if successful. A1 shall receive two free throws with the lane spaces cleared. Any Team B player is then awarded two free throws for the technical foul. Team B will be awarded the ball for a throw-in at the division line opposite the scorers table.
4.19.10 - Simultaneous Foul
B1 fouls dribbling A1 near the division line. At approximately the same time, A2 fouls B2 in the lane near Team A’s basket.
RULING: This is a simultaneous personal foul. B1 and A2 are charged with personal fouls. The ball shall be put back in play at the point of interruption. Team A is awarded a throw-in on the sideline nearest to where the ball was located when the fouls occurred. (4-36, 7-5-3b)
4.19.11 - Multiple Foul
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4.19.12 - False Multiple Foul
B1 fouls airborne A1 who is in the act of shooting. Before airborne shooter A1 returns one foot to the floor, he/she is fouled by B2 who has moved into A1’s landing area. The ball: (a) does; or (b) does not, enter the basket.
RULING: This is a false multiple foul and each foul carries its own penalty. In (a), the goal is counted and A1 is awarded one free throw for each foul. In (b), A1 is awarded two free throws for each foul. (10 PENALTY 6, 10 PENALTY 7)
4.19.13 - Fight Adds to Team Fouls
Three substitutes of Team B leave their bench and come onto the court during a fight.
RULING: The three substitutes are each charged with a flagrant technical foul and are disqualified. The Team B head coach is also charged indirectly with a technical foul resulting in the loss of coaching-box privileges. Team A is awarded two free throws plus the ball for a throw-in for this multiple infraction. Team B is charged with three fouls for reaching the bonus. In addition, the proper fouls are charged and penalties are assessed for the players who were fighting. (10-5-5PENALTY)
4.19.14 - Dead-Ball Live-Ball Fouls
What type of foul is committed when: (a) during a dead-ball period A1 taunts B1; (b) B1 crosses the end line and fouls thrower A1; (c) immediately after the ball passes through the basket, airborne shooter A1 fouls B1; or (d) B1 reaches through the end-line boundary and slaps the ball from the hands of thrower A1.
RULING: It is an unsporting technical foul in (a) and an intentional personal foul in (b). There is no score in (c), as A1 has committed a player-control foul. The foul in (d) is a technical foul charged to B1.
4.23.3 - Guarding Position
B1 has obtained a legal guarding position on A1 and moves to maintain it. A1 moves laterally and contacts defender B1 but does not get his/her head and shoulders past the torso of B1. Contact occurs on the side of B1’s torso.
RULING: Player-control foul by A1. (4-7-2)
A1 is dribbling near the sideline when B1 obtains legal guarding position. B1 stays in the path of A1 but in doing so has (a) one foot touching the sideline or (b) one foot in the air over the out-of-bounds area when A1 contacts B1 in the torso.
RULING: In (a), B1 is called for a blocking foul because a player may not be out of bounds and obtain or maintain legal guarding position. In (b), A1 is called for a player-control foul because B2 had obtained and maintained legal guarding position. (4-23-2, 4-23-3a)
4.25.2 - Held Ball
A1 jumps to try for goal or to pass the ball. B1 leaps or reaches and is able to put his/her hands on the ball and keep A1 from releasing it. A1: (a) returns to the floor with the ball; or (b) is unable to control the ball and it drops to the floor.
RULING: A held ball results immediately in (a) and (b) when airborne A1 is prevented from releasing the ball to pass or try for goal.
4.29 - Kicking the Ball
During A1’s attempt to pass to A2, B1 (a) intentionally uses his/her thigh to deflect the pass; (b) intentionally kicks the ball with his/her foot; or (c) has the ball accidentally hit his/her lower leg.
RULING: In (a) and (b), there is a kicking violation and Team A will receive the ball out of bounds nearest the violation. In (c), the ball remains live and there is no violation. (9-4)
A1 has the ball for a throw-in. A1 rolls the ball to A2 who stops the ball by putting his/her foot on top of it, then bends over and picks up the ball.
RULING: Kicking violation on A2 for intentionally striking the ball with his/her foot. (9-4)
4.33 - Pivot
A1 catches the ball while both feet are off the floor, alights on one foot, jumps off that foot and comes to a stop with both feet simultaneously hitting the floor. A1 then lifts one foot and throws for a goal or passes.
RULING: Legal. A1 may lift either foot in passing or trying for a goal in this situation. However, A1 may not pivot; that is, A1 may not lift one foot from the floor and then step (touch the floor) with that foot before the ball has left the hand(s). By rule, a pivot means a player “steps once or more than once with the same foot…” [4-44-2a(3), 4-44-4a]
4.34.1 - Player/Bench/Personnel/Substitutes
Team A requests a time-out; at the conclusion of the time-out as the teams are returning to the court, A1 curses at the game officials.
RULING: A1 is assessed a technical foul. The foul will count as one of A1’s fouls toward disqualification and toward the team foul count.
COMMENT: During a time-out, A1 is considered a player and not bench personnel.
4.34.2 - Player/Bench/Personnel/Substitutes
The third quarter ends; as the teams are heading to their respective benches, team members A1 and B1 verbally taunt one another.
RULING: Double technical foul charged to A1 and B1. During the intermission between quarters, all team members are bench personnel for the purpose of penalizing unsporting behavior. Both head coaches are indirectly charged with technical fouls and lose their coaching box privileges. Play will resume at the point of interruption, which is an alternating-possession arrow throw-in, to begin the fourth quarter. (10-5-1d, 10-5-1d PENALTY)
4.34.3 - Players/Bench Personnel/Substitutes
Substitute A6 reports to the scorer to replace player A1 and awaits entry to the game. The U2 beckons A6 onto the court, and (a) A6 enters the court to participate; (b) A6 enters the court and commits an unsporting, non-contact foul; or (c) A1 swears at the official while heading to the bench.
RULING: A6 became a player upon being beckoned by the official and entering the court. Legal in (a). In (b) A6, now a player, is penalized with a technical foul which is added to the team foul total. In (c) A1, now bench personnel, is penalized with a technical foul, which is added to the team foul total and also charged as an indirect technical foul to the head coach resulting in the loss of coaching-box privileges.
4.35.1 - Player Location
Thrower A1 inbounds the ball to A2. A2 immediately throws the ball back to A1. When A1 touches the pass, he/she has: (a) both feet touching inbounds; (b) one foot touching inbounds and one out of bounds; or (c) one foot touching inbounds and the other not touching the floor.
4.37.1 - Rebounding Contact
While A1’s try or tap is in flight, A2 and B2 legally obtain potential rebounding positions. B2’s position has his/her back to A2 and is directly between A2 and the basket. As the unsuccessful try or tap rebounds from the ring: (a) B2 moves backward and pushes/displaces A2 from his/her legal position; or (b) A2 “beats” B2, getting his/her head and shoulders past the front of B2’s torso. B2 then moves laterally and pushes/displaces A2.
4.40.2 - Screen
A1 sets a stationary screen with one foot on or outside a boundary line. B1 makes contact with A1 in the torso.
RULING: A blocking foul is ruled on A1 because a player may not be out-of-bounds while setting a legal screen.)
4.41.1 - Act of Shooting, Try
B1 commits a common foul by holding A1 during a field-goal try, but after A1 has completed the act of shooting. The foul occurs before the bonus rule applies. The attempt is: (a) successful; or (b) unsuccessful.
RULING: A personal foul is charged to B1 in both (a) and (b), but no free throw is awarded to A1 in either case. In both (a) and (b), the ball is awarded to Team A at the spot out of bounds nearest where the foul occurred. (7-5-4a)
4.41.2 - Act of Shooting, Try
A1 becomes confused and throws the ball at the wrong basket. A1 is fouled by B1 and the ball goes into the basket. Is this a successful basket? If A1 missed, would A1 be awarded two free throws for the foul by B1?
RULING: No goal. The ball became dead when the foul occurred. When a player throws at the opponent’s basket, it is not a try. If the team is in the bonus when B1 fouled A1, A1 is given either a one-and-one attempt or two free throws at Team A’s basket. If Team A was not in the bonus, then the ball is awarded to Team A for a throw-in at the out-of-bounds spot nearest the foul. (7-5-4a)
4.41.4 - Act of Shooting, Try
While the ball is in flight on a try for goal by A1: (a) B1 touches the ball and then time expires; or (b) time expires and then B1 touches the ball. The ball continues in flight and enters Team A’s basket.
RULING: The goal is scored in both (a) and (b), as B1’s touching did not cause the try to end. However, in both (a) and (b), if B1’s touching is either goaltending or basket interference, the ball becomes dead and two points will be awarded. (6-7 EXCEPTION a, 9-11, 9-12)
A1’s three-point try is short and below ring level when it hits the shoulder of: (a) A2; or (b) B1 and rebounds to the backboard and through the basket.
RULING: The three-point try ended when it was obviously short and below the ring. However, since a live ball went through the basket, two points are scored in both (a) and (b). (5-1)
4.42.3 - Throw-In
Following a goal by A1 the ball is: (a) inadvertently deflected under the bleachers; (b) bouncing on the court just outside the end line as B1 makes his/her way toward the ball; or (c) lying on the court just outside the end line as B1 delays the inbound by getting instruction from his/her coach. When does the throw-in begin and the ball become live?
RULING: In (a), the official shall signal for the clock to be stopped. The throw-in begins and the ball becomes live when it is at the disposal of Team B. In (b) and (c), the throw-in begins and the ball becomes live when it is available to B1 and the official begins the throw-in count. In (c), the throw-in count begins when the official determines B1 has had ample time to secure the ball; it need not be in B1’s possession. (4-4-7d)
4.42.5 - Throw-In
Team A is awarded an alternating-possession throw-in. A1’s throw-in pass is illegally kicked by B2.
RULING: As a result of B2’s kicking violation, Team A is awarded a new throw-in at the designated spot nearest to where the kicking violation (illegal touching) occurred. Since the alternating-possession throw-in had not been contacted legally, the throw-in has not ended and therefore, the arrow remains with Team A for the next alternating-possession throw-in.
COMMENT: The kicking violation ends the alternating-possession throw-in and as a result, a non-alternating-possession throw-in is administered. When the ball is legally touched on the subsequent throw-in following the kicking violation, the arrow shall not be changed and shall remain with Team A. (6-4-5)
4.42.6 - Throw-In
Following a personal foul by B3, the official indicates to Team A that they shall inbound the ball from a spot 10 feet from the sideline. In (a), A1 jumps in the air, over the designated spot, and passes the ball inbounds; (b) A1 has one foot within the designated-spot area but lifts it from the floor as the inbounds pass is made; or (c) A1 moves directly backwards from the designated spot by 6 feet and passes the ball inbounds.
RULING: Legal in (a), (b) and (c). As long as the thrower maintains any portion of his/her body on or above the 3-foot designated-spot area while making the throw-in, the throw-in shall be legal.
4.44 - Traveling - Or Not
A1 attempts to catch the ball while running rapidly. A1 muffs the ball, but succeeds in securing it before it strikes the floor. A1 then begins a dribble, taking several steps between the time the ball was first touched until it was caught.
RULING: There has been no violation provided A1, after catching the ball, released the ball to start the dribble before the pivot foot was lifted from the floor. (4-15)
A1 attempts a try after ending the dribble. The try does not touch the backboard, the ring or any other player. A1 runs and is able to catch the ball before it strikes the floor. Is this traveling?
4.44.2 - Traveling - Or Not
Dribbler A1 catches the ball with the right foot touching the floor and then jumps off that foot and alights on both feet simultaneously: (a) with feet parallel; or (b) with one foot in advance.
RULING: The position of the feet has no significance, but they must come to the floor simultaneously. In both (a) and (b), it is a violation if A1 pivots on either foot.
Airborne A1 and A2 jointly grab the rebound and each alights simultaneously on both feet. A1 and A2 each move one foot in attempting to wrestle the ball from each other before realizing they are teammates. A1 lets go and A2 dribbles away.
RULING: Legal. There has been no violation as neither A1 or A2 moved their pivot foot while they were in joint control.
4.44.3 - Traveling - Or Not
A1 jumps to try for goal. B1 also jumps and: (a) slaps the ball out of A1’s hands; (b) touches the ball but does not prevent A1 from releasing the ball; (c) touches the ball and A1 returns to the floor holding the ball; or (d) touches the ball and A1 drops it to the floor and touches it first after it bounces.
RULING: In (a) and (b), the ball remains live. In (c), a traveling violation. In (d), a violation for starting a dribble with the pivot foot off the floor. Since the touching did not prevent the pass or try in (b), (c) and (d), the ball remains live and subsequent action is covered by rules which apply to the situation.
RULING: No. Traveling would occur only if A1 begins a dribble or returns the pivot foot to the floor. While in this position A1 may pass, try for goal or request a time-out.
(a) A1 tosses the ball from one hand to the other while keeping his/her pivot foot in contact with the floor; or (b) A1 throws the ball over the head of B1 and then takes several steps before catching it.
RULING: Legal in (a), but a traveling violation in (b). In (b), since the ball did not touch the floor, the tossing and subsequent catch is illegal. (9-4)
4.44.5 - Traveling - Or Not
Is it traveling if A1 falls to the floor: (a) while holding the ball; or (b) after being airborne to catch a pass or control a rebound?
RULING: Yes in both (a) and (b).
A1 dives for a loose ball and slides after gaining control. A1 is in a position either on his/her back or stomach. What can A1 do without violating?
RULING: A1 may pass, shoot, start a dribble or call a time-out. Once A1 has the ball and is no longer sliding, he/she may not roll over. If flat on his/her back, A1 may sit up without violating. Any attempt to get to the feet is traveling unless A1 is dribbling. It is also traveling if A1 puts the ball on the floor, then rises and is first to touch the ball. (4-44-5b)
A1 secures possession of the ball with one knee in contact with the floor. May A1 assume a standing position without committing a traveling violation?
RULING: It depends on what A1 does. If A1 attempts to stand up while holding the ball, a traveling violation occurs. However, if A1 starts a dribble and then rises, no violation has occurred. Also, A1 could pass, try for goal or call a time-out from that position.
4.48 - Warning for Misconduct
Following a goal by A1, the head coach of B confronts the center official with language that is considered to be (a) profane and violent; (b) argumentative; (c) questioning.
RULING: (a) The official rules a technical foul on the head coach because of his/her profane and violent language. (b) The official issues a warning to the head coach which is recorded in the scorebook. (c) The official may issue a warning to the coach. (10-5-1a)
NOTE: The head coach/team bench should receive only one warning for unsporting behavior. All other unsporting behaviors should be ruled such and a technical foul executed.